1. Feed form
1.1 Wet and dry problems
There are currently three types of feed materials for beef cattle, namely: dry powder, wet feed (water 1: 1) and thinner. According to the test, the feed intake of wet feed is the best, and the thinner is the worst.
1.2 The crushing size of corn is preferably 0.8 mm-1.5 mm. If it is too thick, the utilization rate of feed will be reduced, causing waste; if it is too thin, it may cause digestive tract ulcers for a long time, which is not conducive to health. At the same time, too thin feed will have bad palatability, thereby affecting feed intake.
2. the smell of feed
Beef cattle have unusually good sense of smell, so they are very sensitive to changes in feed odor, which may affect feed intake.
2.1 Feed moldy and spoiled: if the feed is contaminated with mold, making the feed moldy, it will reduce the feed intake of beef cattle like odor or palatability.
2.2 Feed rancidity: when the temperature is high or the feed is stored for a long time, the crude fat in the feed will oxidize rancidity, which reduces its feed intake.
2.3 Different types of oils and fats: if soybean oil, corn oil, etc. are added to the feed, the odor is different. If it changes, it will affect the feed intake.
2.4 The influence of the special smell of other raw materials in the feed, such as the content of fish meal and the quality of the food.
3. Certain feed ingredients
3.1 Amino acids: insufficient orunbalanced amino acids in the feed have a great influence on the intake of beef cattle. Tests have shown that the intake of beef cattle increases with the increase of lysine levels in the feed; but to a certain extent, the intake of feed tends to decline.
3.2 Minerals: the lack of zinc and phosphorus in the feed and the excess of calcium, manganese, iodine, and iron can cause poor appetite for beef cattle.
3 The lack of vitamin B1, B2, B12 and niacin and pantothenic acid will reduce the calf intake. If B1 is insufficient, it will affect the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the beef cattle, causing a large amount of propionic acid to accumulate in the body and damage digestion. Adult cattle generally do not need to supplement B vitamins.
3.4 Water content: water is the source of life, and water is also an essential substance for nutrients. In the early period of water shortage, beef cattle's appetite obviously decreases, especially does not like to eat dry powder; with the increase of water loss, beef cattle's appetite may be completely abolished.
3.5 Sweeteners: the taste of beef cattle is very strong. The number of taste buds on its tongue is three times that of human beings. The sweet taste of beef is the favorite for cattle. For example, when the feed contains sweeteners, the feed intake increases.
3.6 Salt: the normal fattening cattle needs 0.8% salt. If the salt content drops from 0.8% to 0.4%, the feed intake can be reduced by 20%, and the weight gain is also reduced.
3.7 Energy aspect: if the energy content of feed is high, the feed intake will be low, otherwise the energy intake is high.
In addition, some diseases such as parasitic diseases, colds, gastroenteritis, etc., changes in the temperature of the beef cattle house, the herding process of the cattle, the circling, the feed replacement, the epidemic prevention process will affect the feed intake of beef cattle.